The last six chapters of Effective Leadership more or less wrap the book up by deeply summarizing all the variables that makes up the intricate relationship between leaders and their followers, the development necessary to derive such a relationship and the individuals involved, and the different forms of authority and intention held by certain leaders in particular situations; helping to further drive home the reality that leadership is a complex concept made up of an almost infinite varieties of personal and organizational factors. Initially, Humphrey takes the time to describe self empowerment within organizations along with the distribution of leadership within an organization. In a nutshell, this is a perfect description of a concept in the military known as decentralized command, which is the idea that if every individual in a particular unit is as equally qualified to do any and all jobs within that particular unit and everyone is as equally motivated to complete the agreed upon mission, then that unit will have achieved their full potential for organizational efficacy. This process is accelerated by the removal of simple negative factors such as procrastination, emotional self absorption, and delayed gratification within the hierarchy of the organization. This organization transformation starts on an individual level within things such as behavior, natural reward systems based on priority, and constructive thought strategies. So when your organization is as equally motivated and dedicated on a personal and emotional level as it is on the macro grand scale level, it can create a truly “low drag” and efficient approach to it’s agreed upon mission. The book then goes on to describe the importance of “authentic leaders”, and a self serving positive energy that can be established within an organization that can provide the quality of motivation needed to accomplish it’s goals. Leaders are people to, and people are a constantly evolving and changing as you gain experience within the passage of time. We have to be aware of the fact that the person we are today may not be the person we are tomorrow, and we must work to keep ourselves rooted in a particular set of morals and ethics, but we must also be open to the importance of new experiences; both good and bad, there is almost always some form of inner psychological capital to be gained from said experiences which we can utilize to make ourselves better in the long run. When efficacy of self is propagated on an individual level within an organization, it is often disseminated both upward and downward within the hierarchy of the organization; creating a work domain self efficacy. Once this is achieved, optimism within an organization can be set to flourish, driven mainly by the molding qualities of adversity, belief, consequences, disputes, and energization. So once the proper environment has been established on both the macro and micro levels for leadership and development to occur, then real progress can be made towards complete and total organizational efficacy and consequently completion of the given mission or goal(s). Another important step towards this end goal is the development of identity on both the personal and organizational level; if you aren’t sure who you are and what you want, and the same can be said for your organization, then you’ll have no self assurance, no direction, and a proliferation of insecurity. All of these negative qualities can go from something as simple as road bump to a mile wide crater in your journey towards organizational efficacy and your completion of the mission. The book goes on to elaborate that a leader can utilize the idea of a collective identity within an organization to propagate altruistic behaviors among his/her subordinates, which when combined with effective distributed leadership (decentralized command) can help to create a presence of heightened and effective leadership behavior within the organization. This requires the presence of a core identity within the populous of the group, which helps each individual to recognize the role they play in this broad view strategy. This can become difficult in certain circumstances due to the fact that most people have multiple selves within them; how and what someone is at work may not be exactly the same way they are outside of work, and with that difference comes a variance in priorities and focus. Ideally, you’d like to reach a point within your organization’s development where each and every individual involved in your mission is as equally focused and motivated on the completion of a given task to the point where what your organization is and what it does becomes the central focus of those individuals’ lives. A good example of this can be seen in the preparation and lifestyle of special forces units; those involved normally know nothing outside of what is going on within those units, nor do they really care to become interested in anything otherwise. This creates a level of efficiency and unit cohesion that can hardly be matched anywhere in the private sector. Humphrey then goes on to chain the next four chapters together, at least in my mind, in order to describe different forms authority within leadership, the attitudes and energies displayed by said leaders, and the differences between those who are motivated to lead either by empirical success or transformational successes among the group. Being a leader usually implies that your power within the group is usually derived from some source of respect or control; be it position/title, control of a resource or operation, or a personal display of qualities that inspire or guide those around you. Within that are varying degrees of charisma required to motivate those involved to press forward towards the intended goal, while also requiring a certain level personal rhetoric that allow you to communicate clearly and concisely with those around you. The impression you give from these qualities will help to derive the relationship you hold with your subordinates and the nature of how and why exactly it is that people are following you in the first place. Although these are personal qualities that are developed within yourself over time, they manifest themselves in the way you behave and your subconscious focus/drive towards whatever it is that motivates you. Humphrey makes the distinction between leaders who are more focused goal setting in a way that moves a group either empirically or fiscally towards the future. A terrific example of this is managers or leaders who are focused on beating last years sales and give little to no regard as to how the organization is developing on a human level. Conversely, there are managers or leaders who derive their motivation by seeing development and growth within their chain of command through things such as improved attitude or energy among their subordinates, or the classic “climbing the chain” done by those beneath them in their own journey towards personal development. Ultimately, your motivations and priorities as a leader will help to dictate which of the many paths that you and your organization will take towards the hopes of achieving whatever it is your group has set out to do, and the nature of your journey and development along the way; both personally and organizationally, and the qualities of group cohesion you will develop that will you help you along the way.